Che cos’è l’architettura ARM?

Un processore ARM fa parte di una famiglia di CPU basate sull’architettura RISC (computer con set di istruzioni ridotto) sviluppata da Advanced RISC Machines (ARM). Essa realizza processori multi-core RISC a 32 e 64 bit. I processori RISC sono progettati per eseguire un numero inferiore di tipi di istruzioni per computer in modo che possano operare a una velocità più elevata, eseguendo più di milioni di istruzioni al secondo (MIPS). Eliminando le istruzioni non necessarie e ottimizzando i percorsi, i processori RISC offrono prestazioni eccezionali in una frazione di secondo della richiesta di energia dei dispositivi CISC (complessi di set di istruzioni).

I processori ARM sono ampiamente utilizzati nei dispositivi elettronici di consumo come smartphone, tablet, lettori multimediali e altri dispositivi mobili, come i dispositivi indossabili. A causa del loro set di istruzioni ridotto, richiedono un numero inferiore di transistor, il che consente una dimensione del die più piccola per il circuito integrato (IC). Le dimensioni ridotte del processore ARM, la riduzione della complessità e il ridotto consumo energetico le rendono adatte a dispositivi sempre più miniaturizzati.

Le caratteristiche

Le caratteristiche del processore ARM includono:

Carica / salva l’architettura.

Un set di istruzioni ortogonali.

Principalmente esecuzione a ciclo singolo.

Design potenziato per il risparmio energetico.

Stati di esecuzione a 64 e 32 bit per prestazioni elevate scalabili.

Supporto per la virtualizzazione dell’hardware.

La progettazione semplificata di questi processori  consente un’elaborazione multi-core più efficiente e una codifica più semplice per gli sviluppatori. Sebbene non abbiano lo stesso throughput di elaborazione raw dei prodotti del leader di mercato x86, i processori Intel, a volte, superano le prestazioni dei processori Intel per le applicazioni che esistono su entrambe le architetture.

ARM nel mercato

La concorrenza testa a testa tra i venditori è in aumento mentre ARM sta trovando la sua strada. Microsoft, ad esempio, offre versioni di computer Surface basate su questa architettura. Anche la base di codice più pulita di Windows RT rispetto alle versioni x86 può essere parzialmente responsabile: Windows RT è più snello perché non deve supportare un certo numero di hardware legacy.

Anche ARM sta entrando nel mercato dei server, una mossa che rappresenta un grande cambiamento di direzione e una copertura delle scommesse sulle prestazioni per watt sulla potenza di calcolo non elaborata. AMD offre versioni a 8 core di processori ARM per la sua serie di processori Opteron. I server ARM rappresentano un importante cambiamento nell’information basata su server. Un server tradizionale di classe x86 con 12, 16, 24 o più core aumenta le prestazioni aumentando la velocità e la sofisticazione di ciascun processore, utilizzando la forza bruta e la potenza per gestire carichi di lavoro informatici complessi.

In confronto, un server ARM utilizza forse centinaia di processori a bassa potenza più piccoli, meno sofisticati. Essi condividono le attività di elaborazione tra quel numero elevato invece di pochi processori con capacità più elevata. Questo approccio viene a volte definito “ridimensionamento”, in contrasto con il “ridimensionamento” dei server che si basano su x86.

L’architettura ARM è stata originariamente sviluppata da Acorn Computers negli anni ’80.

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