Che cos’è il BIOS?

BIOS: una parola che avrete sentito sicuramente tantissime volte. Molti sanno che cos’è, ma molti anche no. Per questo motivo, atuttainformatica è qui per spiegarvelo!

Che cos’è quindi il BIOS?

Il BIOS (basic input/output system) è il programma utilizzato da un microprocessore del PC per avviare il sistema dopo l’accensione. Gestisce anche il flusso di dati tra il sistema operativo del computer e le periferiche collegate come il disco rigido, la scheda video, la tastiera, il mouse e la stampante.

Il BIOS è parte integrante del tuo computer e viene fornito quando lo porti a casa. (Al contrario, il sistema operativo può essere preinstallato dal produttore o dal fornitore o installato dall’utente.) Il BIOS è un programma reso accessibile al microprocessore su un chip EPROM  cancellabile. Quando accendi il computer, il microprocessore passa il controllo al programma BIOS, che si trova sempre nello stesso punto della EPROM

Quando il BIOS avvia il tuo computer, prima determina se tutti gli allegati sono posizionati e operativi. Solo allora carica il sistema operativo (o parti chiave di esso) nella RAM del tuo computer dal tuo hard disco o unità a dischetti.

Grazie ad esso, il tuo sistema operativo e le sue applicazioni vengono liberati dal dover capire i dettagli esatti (come gli indirizzi hardware) sui dispositivi di input / output collegati. Quando i dettagli del dispositivo cambiano, è necessario modificare solo il programma BIOS. A volte questo cambiamento può essere fatto durante l’installazione del sistema. In ogni caso, non è necessario modificare né il sistema operativo né le applicazioni utilizzate.

Sebbene esso sia in teoria sempre l’intermediario tra il microprocessore e le informazioni di controllo dei dispositivi I/O e il flusso di dati, in alcuni casi esso può organizzare il flusso dei dati direttamente alla memoria da dispositivi (come schede video) che richiedono un flusso di dati più rapido efficace.

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